Home Page Home Page
 Home | Software Development | System/Network Administration | Corporate Services | Resources | About Us
Monthly Server Management One-time Server Services Other Services
Network Administration Network Monitoring Network Security High Availability Load Balancing Data Backup and Recovery
Linux HOWTOs Linux Guides New RFCs Vulnerability list
Partners Careers Site Map
Local Variables

23.2. Local Variables

What makes a variable "local"?

local variables

A variable declared as local is one that is visible only within the block of code in which it appears. It has local "scope". In a function, a local variable has meaning only within that function block.

Example 23-12. Local variable visibility

#!/bin/bash
# Global and local variables inside a function.

func ()
{
  local loc_var=23       # Declared as local variable.
  echo                   # Uses the 'local' builtin.
  echo "\"loc_var\" in function = $loc_var"
  global_var=999         # Not declared as local.
                         # Defaults to global. 
  echo "\"global_var\" in function = $global_var"
}  

func

# Now, to see if local variable "loc_var" exists outside function.

echo
echo "\"loc_var\" outside function = $loc_var"
                                      # $loc_var outside function = 
                                      # No, $loc_var not visible globally.
echo "\"global_var\" outside function = $global_var"
                                      # $global_var outside function = 999
                                      # $global_var is visible globally.
echo				      

exit 0
#  In contrast to C, a Bash variable declared inside a function
#+ is local *only* if declared as such.

Caution

Before a function is called, all variables declared within the function are invisible outside the body of the function, not just those explicitly declared as local.

#!/bin/bash

func ()
{
global_var=37    #  Visible only within the function block
                 #+ before the function has been called. 
}                #  END OF FUNCTION

echo "global_var = $global_var"  # global_var =
                                 #  Function "func" has not yet been called,
                                 #+ so $global_var is not visible here.

func
echo "global_var = $global_var"  # global_var = 37
                                 # Has been set by function call.

23.2.1. Local variables help make recursion possible.

Local variables permit recursion, [1] but this practice generally involves much computational overhead and is definitely not recommended in a shell script. [2]

Example 23-13. Recursion, using a local variable

#!/bin/bash

#               factorial
#               ---------


# Does bash permit recursion?
# Well, yes, but...
# It's so slow that you gotta have rocks in your head to try it.


MAX_ARG=5
E_WRONG_ARGS=65
E_RANGE_ERR=66


if [ -z "$1" ]
then
  echo "Usage: `basename $0` number"
  exit $E_WRONG_ARGS
fi

if [ "$1" -gt $MAX_ARG ]
then
  echo "Out of range (5 is maximum)."
  #  Let's get real now.
  #  If you want greater range than this,
  #+ rewrite it in a Real Programming Language.
  exit $E_RANGE_ERR
fi  

fact ()
{
  local number=$1
  #  Variable "number" must be declared as local,
  #+ otherwise this doesn't work.
  if [ "$number" -eq 0 ]
  then
    factorial=1    # Factorial of 0 = 1.
  else
    let "decrnum = number - 1"
    fact $decrnum  # Recursive function call (the function calls itself).
    let "factorial = $number * $?"
  fi

  return $factorial
}

fact $1
echo "Factorial of $1 is $?."

exit 0

See also Example A-16 for an example of recursion in a script. Be aware that recursion is resource-intensive and executes slowly, and is therefore generally not appropriate to use in a script.

Notes

[1]

Herbert Mayer defines recursion as ". . . expressing an algorithm by using a simpler version of that same algorithm . . ." A recursive function is one that calls itself.

[2]

Too many levels of recursion may crash a script with a segfault.

#!/bin/bash

#  Warning: Running this script could possibly lock up your system!
#  If you're lucky, it will segfault before using up all available memory.

recursive_function ()		   
{
echo "$1"     # Makes the function do something, and hastens the segfault.
(( $1 < $2 )) && recursive_function $(( $1 + 1 )) $2;
#  As long as 1st parameter is less than 2nd,
#+ increment 1st and recurse.
}

recursive_function 1 50000  # Recurse 50,000 levels!
#  Most likely segfaults (depending on stack size, set by ulimit -m).

#  Recursion this deep might cause even a C program to segfault,
#+ by using up all the memory allotted to the stack.


echo "This will probably not print."
exit 0  # This script will not exit normally.

#  Thanks, Stéphane Chazelas.